Thursday, July 21, 2005

Boston Rocks the Commons

While my comrades have been mashing up Boston music, I have been diagramming the networks of ties among Boston Nightclubs. For anyone who missed it (e.g., almost everyone), I have been participating in/studying this market for quite some time. While it's increasingly common to see ethnographic approaches in organizational research, often this comes in the form of a few days of participant observation. A new crop of Chicago School urban ethnographers are demonstrating how more active involvement allows for deeper understanding.

This is particularly true if you want to get a deep understanding of the tacit rules, relationships and meanings that organize art worlds. For me and my colleagues, blurring the lines between insider/outsider, research/practitioner is critical for understanding cultural phenomena in a way that participants themselves will recognize. I think this is even MORE important when you are doing network analysis, because the "instant face validity" of the drawings can mislead you into thinking you really understand mechanisms. For that (at least in art worlds), you gotta get your hands dirty and stay up late. Since many of my music friends and colleagues asked for a less academic summary of some of my research, I thought I'd try to provide it.

Just recently I drew some network diagrams that demonstrate how the market for bands in Boston operates more like a creative commons than a traditional competitive market. What you see above is a diagram that shows all the nightclubs that booked the same bands in Boston over 18 months (+/- a few weeks). Clubs that booked one or more of the same bands are tied. (Ethics note: These diagrams were made from publicly available data so there are no confidentiality issues here). Using the "Clubs-by-night" Nightclub listings from the Boston Phoenix, I was able to generate a nice bird's-eye view of this creative market over almost two years (2001-2002).

The most obvious thing about the diagram is that it seems to have a blue core surrounded by a cloud of red. Blue circles in the middle represent the original clubs (e.g., clubs that book bands that play their own songs) and red circles represent the cover clubs (clubs that book cover bands). Since I was focused on live bands, I basically excluded clubs that had no live music at all. The sizes correspond to the number of different bands that the club booked (so bigger circles booked more different bands than smaller ones) and relate to the different strategies employed by these sectors (consistency vs variety). Distance on the map relates to the similarity between the clubs in terms of their bookings. Clubs that are close together tended to book more of the same bands than clubs that were far apart. (For all you networkers I used MDS in Ucinet - but we are not going into that here. A slightly expanded academic view of all this is at my academic web site).

At a minimum, this diagram again demonstrates that some creative markets contain lots of cooperation among competitors. But as we zoom in, an even more interesting picture emerges. The diagram below shows all the clubs that booked 15 or more bands in common. Line thickness corresponds to the number of bands that played at both clubs. Because the cover clubs all drop out, it means that these clubs tend not to share bands. Now we see that the original market contains even more sharing among "competitors" than the market as a whole. (Although this may be slightly exaggerated because cover clubs may not list as often in the Phoenix as the original clubs).

From an armchair economic perspective, all the clubs in one market should be competitors (e.g., for customers). My data shows that in some settings, buyers actually operate more like partners than competitors.

Another thing that will jump out to people who know this setting is that several of the clubs in this diagram are now out of business (or have reopened under new ownership). Since I stopped collecting this data in 2001, the following original clubs have closed or stopped offering live music for long periods: Lilly's/608, The Linwood, The Kendall Cafe, The House of Blues, The Hideway. Given the recent closing of the Cambridge rock incubator The Plough and Stars (which helped spawn bands like Morphine and G Love and Special Sauce), perhaps it is worth examining this apparent spate of club closings. On the other hand, a number of original rock clubs have also opened and/or started during this time (e.g., PA's lounge, The Independent, The Overdruaght) so perhaps its just volatility rather than a downward trend.

Thanks to everyone out there who put up with my badgering over the years. You know who you are. If anyone still wants to participate in this study or has comments, I am still actively exploring all this and am interested in any refinements, clarifications or additions you may have.


Blogger subconsciouscafe said...

NOBODY'S putting up with your badgering Pal, I can tell you that right now!

I think one factor here in the cooperative vs competitive mix is the Unholy Sodality of Club Bookers, who maintain collegial relations with each other, knowing that life here in Frogpondia is a zero-sum game, its just too small for anyone to get too starchy; shitty behaviour is duly noted, accounts are kept and word gets around. They are a high bandwidth conduit for scuttlebut on bands and the peccadillos of clubowners, and serve to keep everyone on the level. Their loyalty tends to be less for a given club than for each other. There's a lot of mutual support & cooperation - for example offering talent for a gig to another booker if they cant do the date themselves - the band thinks well of them for getting them a gig, the other agent owes them one, every back gets scratched. The whole scene is regulated for mutual benefit.

10:08 AM  
Blogger Fell said...

Heh, I found this link via the Information Aesthetics blog. You got some great work going on here!

10:45 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I can't believe you went to all this trouble.

3:44 AM  
Blogger Music Downloads Center said...

Hi thanks for your blog, I liked it! I also have a blog/site about music that covers music related stuff. Please feel free to visit.

10:12 PM  
Blogger job opportunitya said...

Excellent blog. It was so great and I bet I will
go back to it! I get to look online for blogs like
yours is a blessing.
I will give you access to jump to my city oklahoma phoenix university blog.

3:15 PM  
Anonymous blues said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you!
I have a blues site.
Come and check it out if you get time :-)

2:00 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

More Thailand News & Press Releases. In Thai Language
[url=]buy cheap phentermine online[/url]
[url=]Buy Viagra and Generic Viagra online at discount prices. 4 for $29, 30 for $99, 90 for $199[/url]

1:36 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Sildenafil citrate, sold under the name Viagra is the first of a new group of medication which allows adequate sexual stimulation, relaxes the blood vessels of the penis and helps erection..More info

Analsex very young pussy, Russian Preteen Models top small lolitas

This website contains adult material, all members and persons

Teen sex chat teen model nude little nude girls next teen party lesbian

Couple: Lars & Vanessa Teen: Haylo How: looking for models Video: Photos:

gaysfilmsfree hot gay male free porn titan gay bittorrent free gay white porno ...

Porn Inspector Gay Sites Reviews ยท Gay Fetish Sex

animation pics porn animation bt free incest xxx animation mom sun animation sex animations hot dogs

Adult live webcams - teen webcam webcam girls webcam girls home alone or webcam ...

Lesbian teen cheerleaders which 744 teen lesbian porn sometimes teen lesbian ...

porno videos sex porno free gallery mature wmv porno free daily trailers ...

buy low-cost VIAGRA online
buy low-cost XANAX online
buy low-cost ACTONEL online
ACNE online
buy low-cost ACTOS online
buy low-cost ACYCLOVIR online
buy low-cost ADIPEX online
buy low-cost alprazolam online
buy low-cost VIAGRA online
buy low-cost ALEGRA online
buy low-cost VIAGRA online, Buy Alprazolam ONLINE & Half-Price
buy low-cost DRUGS, ALTACE online, MEDs Half-Price
buy low-cost AMBIEN online, OnLine Pharmacy
buy low-cost VIAGRA online
BUY low-cost ATIVAN online, ATIVAN Half-Price
buy low-cost VIAGRA online, phentermine about 30 per cent of phentermine girls
buy low-cost AVELOX online
buy low-cost BEXTRA online
buy low-cost CIALIC online, half-Price CIALIC ONLINE
buy low-cost CLARINEX online
buy low-cost LAMISIL online, SKIN DRG
BUY low-cost LEVITRA online, Yalf-Price Pharmacy LEVITRA
buy low-cost MERIDIA online
buy low-cost VIAGRA online, Buy BEAUTY $ VIAGRA Half-Price, PENIC Online
buy low-cost VIAGRA online, Buy Alprazolam, ONLINE Half-Price MEDs & Beauty
Save on your prescription medications. Visit our pharmacy for convenient and cost-effective way of buying generic drugs. We offer free prescription and delivery worldwide
For this price we give you fast and descrete shipping,money back guarnteed,24/7 live support, discounting for reorder.Our site have a french and german version also
Acne At Huge Discount! Free Shipping On Acne
Shop and compare this item, 3m+respirators, and many other related products at MonsterMarketplace
4runner parts
Find the acura you are looking for on Search by Zip or browse through the second largest online database of used vehicles

9:02 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Sildenafil citrate, sold under the name Viagra is the first of a new group of medication which allows adequate sexual stimulation, relaxes the blood vessels of the penis and helps erection[url=]buy cheap VIAGRA online[/url]

2:22 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Sildenafil citrate, sold under the name Viagra is the first of a new group of medication which allows adequate sexual stimulation, relaxes the blood vessels of the penis and helps erection[url=http://www.blogs.medex

2:22 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Here's what we've learned in the last decade.
BUY LOW-COST LEVITRA ONLINE - An incredible online casino experience offering blackjack, roulette, craps, slots, and video poker. Deposit now and get up to $555 FREE!

Pro Audio Amps, Speakers, Studio Mixers, Digital Mixers, Analog Mixers, Amps, Speakers for House of Worship, Schools, Offices, Stores and Restaurants. Live Sound, Installed and Portable Sound

professional bose speaker

black internet inurl jack
black casino internet jack

1:43 AM  

Post a Comment

Links to this post:

Create a Link

<< Home